We are interested in cooperation with the manufacturers of forging presses, who are looking for an official and reliable distributor to supply their equipment to the industrial plants in Russia.
The company’s top management and sales team are well acquainted with the Russian market, its mentality and laws; they also understand industrial specifics of the financial and economic activities of the Russian customers. All our sales managers have a large customer database, extensive experience of successful sales and well-established connections with the potential buyers of forging presses made by your Company. This allows our managers to promptly set out the most promising directions for promotion and to ensure a rapid entry of the products into the promising Russian market. Our employees, who are fluent in English and German, are focused on working at the international market with the supplies of foreign equipment.
Our team of experienced engineers, who can handle the most serious technical problems, constantly keeps in touch with the Russian customers, holds meetings and delivers presentations regarding the latest achievements of our manufacturing partners. They point out the engineering challenges and actively communicate with all the departments at Russian plants. That is why the specifics of doing a business in the Russian Federation are well-known to us, and we also know the equipment of the local industrial plants and their up-to-date modernization needs.
Once we become your authorized representative for forging presses in Russia, our marketing staff will carry out a market research in order to check the demand for forging presses, will submit a market overview for forging presses that you offer and evaluate the needs for this type of equipment at local plants. Our specialists will also estimate the potential and capacity of this market at local industrial plants. Our IT-team will start developing a website for your products in Russian. Our experts will assess the conformity between your forging presses and customer needs as well as analyze the common reaction to the new goods in general. We will look into the categories of potential customers, and pick out the largest and the most promising plants.
Upon becoming your authorized agent on the territory of Russia, ‘Intech GmbH’ LLC (ООО «Интех ГмбХ»), will obtain certificates, if required, for a batch of the goods or for various types of forging presses in compliance with Russian standards. We can also arrange the inspection in order to obtain TR TS 010 and TR TS 012 Certificates. These certificates provides permission to operate your equipment at all industrial plants of the EAEU countries (Russia, Kazakhstan, Belarus, Armenia, Kyrgyzstan), including the hazardous industrial facilities. Our company is eager to assist in issuing Technical Passports for forging presses as per Russian and other EAEU countries’ requirements.
Our engineering company ‘Intech GmbH’ LLC (ООО «Интех ГмбХ»), collaborates with several Russian design institutes in various industrial segments, which allows us to conduct preliminary design as well as subsequent design works according to the standards, construction rules and regulations that are applicable in Russia and other CIS countries. It also enables us to include your forging presses into the future projects.
The Company has its own logistics department that can provide packing service, handling as well as the most efficient and cost effective mode of transportation of the goods (incl. over dimensional and overweight goods). The goods can be delivered on DAP or DDP-customer’s warehouse basis in full compliance with all the relevant regulations and requirements that are applicable on the Russian market.
Our company has its own certified specialists who will carry out installation supervision and commissioning of the delivered equipment, as well as further guarantee and post-guarantee maintenance of forging presses. They will also provide necessary training and guidance for the customer’s personnel.
A common press unit (a forging press) consists of three main blocks: a motor, a transmission and an actuating mechanism. The motor and transmission compose a “drive”.
General classification of press units (forging press equipment) is based on its main blocks features.
The transmission is generally characterized by the connection type between actuating mechanism and motor: a stiff mechanical connection or a flexible connection with actuation fluid (steam, gas, liquid, electromagnetic field). Movements of actuating elements (slide, arm, traverse beam, heads, rolls, rollers and etc.) transform kinetic or potential energy into plastic working.
There are single- and multi-stage production technologies of forged and die-formed products. Physical and mechanical processes are similar in the single-stage production, but in the multi-stage production these processes are different.
The modern technology of die-forging production includes forging, hot and cold die forging, hot and cold sheet forging, raw material dressing and cutting. Therefore a press unit (a forging press) can fall under various production groups. Classification of die-forging equipment is given in the figure below.
By process capabilities die-forging machines (forging press equipment) are divided into three groups: flexible (general purpose), special and custom. Machines from the first group are used to perform majority of standard operations. For example, a hydraulic forging press can perform any forging operation. Machines from the second group are determined by technology type, for example, crank drawing press. Machines from the third group are determined both by technology and type of manufactured products.
The die-forging machines (forging press equipment) are characterized by size, linear, speed, power and weight parameters. The main parameter of any press equipment is nominal power Pnom.
Linear parameters can relate to process parameters (holding of tool and its elements) and characterize a machine process purpose. Envelope size and stroke of actuating element are considered to be process linear parameters as they determine overall dimensions of the tool, incoming work stock and finished product.
A number of idle strokes per minute of the actuating element is a speed parameter of similar machines.
Power parameters are determined by a motor, energy source or actuation fluid of the machine. They may be set, for example, air or steam pressure for an air and steam hammer drive, or rated, for example, electric motor power or wheel inertia.
Mechanical presses operate on principle of transformation of drive rotational movement into linear movement of a slide with the tool fixed on it. Rotational movement energy of the drive transforms into metal deformation energy due to stiff kinematic connections between the crank press parts.
Main units of mechanical presses are:
Pressure of a fluid being an energy source (actuation fluid) actuates a cylinder plunger that pushes a press slide that plastically deforms the work stock placed on the bed.
High-pressure fluid (with pressure of up to 32 MPa and higher) is fed into hydraulic press operating cylinders to overcome resistance of the work stock during deformation. Kinetic energy of linear movement of the press moving parts is relatively small compared to potential energy accumulated by the fluid. For this reason hydraulic presses are considered to be forging machines of quasi-static action.
Main units of mechanical presses are:
A pneumatic die forging press with a cross shaft is used widely for hot stamping of copper and aluminum alloy products and equipment parts.
Pneumatic presses have the following advantages:
Double-crank sizing presses are designed for hot sizing and straightening of heavy forgings with extended axis in a single-position or two-position sizing unit.
Advantages of these presses are:
Crank presses are designed for various cold plate stamping operations: blanking, piercing, bending, shallow drawing and etc. They are widely used in various production types: low volume production, batch production, mass production.
Crank presses have the following advantages:
These presses are intended for various hot die forging operations of gears, flanges, shafts and etc. They are widely used in any production type: low-batch production, batch production, mass production.
Advantages of these presses are:
These plunger type presses are equipped with double crossheads that ensure enhanced stiffness of slide movement and precision of die products.
Presses are used for the following operations: shearing, blanking, trimming, piercing, drawing, bending.
Advantages of these presses are:
Hydraulic presses are designed for precise deep drawing of sheet metal. Press designs with nominal powers from 10 to 3000 tons are available. Hydraulic presses feature high performance and precision.
Advantages of these hydraulic presses are as follows:
Forging rolls drive includes an electrical motor, a V-belt transmission, a gearbox and a spindle transmission.
A roll forging machine is designed for processing of manual tool, bicycle parts, car and other vehicle parts.
Main areas of maintenance and repair and equipment overhaul are as follows:
Sheet metal prior to cold sheet forging is cut with shears into work stocks with required dimensions. Main shear types are: parallel shears, inclined guillotine shears, upcut shears. A parallel shear is for cutting narrow and heavy strips and non-metal materials. A shear with inclined blades (guillotine shears) is for sheet metal cutting. A rotary shear is used for coiled metal cutting and edge trimming. An upcut shear is for cutting of curvilinear work stocks.
A work stock with thickness of S0 is exposed to impact of upper and lower blades during cutting process, with force P applied to the work stock. Work stock under torque created by two forces starts to rotate and presses blade sides, thus creating side pressure force T. The upper blade digging into the work stock by depth h causes shear cracks that are directed at 0° angle relative to the vertical surface. If gap setting z=(0,05-0,10)S0 is correctly selected, shear cracks from the lower and upper blades are aligned and form separation surface. The blade dig value is defined by a formula h=yS0, where у=F0/Fm is a value of contraction rating calculated on the basis of tensile tests and F0, Fm are an original area and a sample cross-section area at necking respectively. Dig depth h before cracking is between 0.1-0.5 of a work stock thickness and increases with higher metal plasticity.
Basic metal die cutting operations are blanking and piercing. These operations can be considered as separating one work stock part from another part along a closed contour with punch and die. When blanking, one part of the work stock remaining in a die is a scrap, but when piercing, the same work piece will be a finished part.
Similar to shearing, cutting operation consists of three stages: elastic stage, plastic stage and shearing stage. The following operations are performed consequently: elastic bending with pressing along the perimeter of the hole both on the die and punch sides followed by bending moment (buckling) and then cracking on the die and punch side.
Peculiarity of strain and stress state lies in the different strain and stress state patterns in different parts of deformed work stock. Triaxle compressive stress state occurs directly under the punch cutting edge, and stress state with radial deformation occurs above the die cutting edge. The former is better for metal yielding but the latter is less desired for it and contributes to occurrence of microcracks in the cut area. The strain and stress pattern is biaxial in the work stock central part with no axial compressive stress.
Metal deformation and power energy parameters are significantly influenced by gap z selection. If the gap z=(5-10%)S0 is optimal, shear and crack surfaces are aligned both on punch and die sides. If the gap is small and the metal is heavy, cracks do not align and create a circular bridge that is cut by consequently formed shearing cracks. Thus a tear and a double cut with an extended burr are formed on the part.
If the gap is big, torn burrs that caused by dragging and metal tearing in the gap are formed on the surface. Full deformation force for blanking (piercing) is calculated using the following formula:
where LA is part perimeter; Q is press force.
Press force shall be selected of value higher than calculated, considering force needed to push the part Ppush through the die and force to remove the strip Рremove from the punch.
Bending is a sheet forging process operation that produces a freeform curved part due to application of dies to a flat work stock. There are three-point, double-angle, multiple-angle bending, rolling-up and coiling.
Outer layers (on a die side) are expanded and elongated in longitudinal direction and compressed in cross direction. There is a neutral layer (n.l.) between the elongated and compressed layers. It is a conventional curved surface splitting the layers of compressed and expanded crystallites. Neutral layer radius is calculated using the following formula:
where kα is the necking ratio.
Drawing is a sheet forging operation that produces an open top closed circuit hollow product from a flat or hollow work stock. Drawing operation based on the geometric shape of the finished parts can produce axisymmetric, box and complex nonsymmetrical shapes. Moreover, drawing can be pressed and non-pressed, ironing and no thinning.
General formula for drawing force calculation shall be applied:
where L is part perimeter; S is thickness; k is a part shape coefficient; σρmax is maximum radial stress.
Different empirically determined coefficients based on production and experimental data for force calculation are suggested to be applied since it is difficult to consider peculiarities of drawing process for products with different geometrical shapes. For example, general formula for drawing force calculation of cylindrical parts with wide flanges shall be as follows:
Р = π d·S·σ·k
where σ is metal tensile strength.
The last formula is recommended for force drawing calculations of square boxes during initial operations, but for the last operation the following dependence shall be applied:
where В and rK is width and radius of angular box rounding, respectively; kb is a coefficient.
Bulge molding (molding of reinforcement ribs and local peaks), bead forming, drafting and expanding are considered to be basic sheet molding operations that change the work stock shape with local deformation.
Bulge molding is a sheet forging operation that produces a concavo-convex profile due to impact of local deformation and expansion. Therefore, patterns and reinforcement ribs that increase the overall rigidness of the part by 100-200% are formed. Using this operation one can decrease springing (precision increase) and reduce necessary metal thickness.
Bead forming is an operation that produces a neck in a flat or spatial work stock by expanding in tangential direction and pressing the work stock with a pre-formed hole into the die. There are two versions of the operation: hole bead forming (internal) and outer contour forming (external).
Drafting is a sheet molding operation designed to reduce edge cross dimensions of a hollow cylindrical parts. This process produces such parts as necks and cartridge cases and usually lubricants are used during this operation.
The following versions can be distinguished: drafting (swaging) of pipe sections (reducing on rotary swaging machines), drafting of hollow parts by vertical pressure on mechanical presses.
The process of metal molding by drafting in the conical die can be divided into four deformation stages: pre-bending, deformation at the die conical section due to friction forces, free bending, and straightening of work stock elements. Some features of strain and stress state can be noted as follows: the pattern of strain and stress state is similar to the flat pattern, but with the impact of two compressive stresses in the radial σρ and tangential σθ directions. Maximum compressive stress σρmax occurring in the work stock walls due to pushing in forces impacting the non-deformed part. This way molding can only lead to loss of stability in this part of the work stock followed by circular wave (fold) formation.
In order to prevent the aforementioned defects it is necessary to choose the correct deformation coefficient when drafting (mdr=d/D) and to compare it with limit coefficient mdr. The rated coefficient shall not exceed the minimal allowed coefficient depending on the type of material, relative thickness, friction conditions of the work stock and the tool and die taper angle. Drafting force is determined by the following formula:
where kdr is a coefficient depending on the drafting coefficient.
Expanding (stretching) is a sheet molding operation designed to expand the edge part of the hollow cylindrical work stock.
This operation includes tapered punch expanding, rubber punch expanding and liquid (hydraulic) expanding.
Reduction is to be estimated by the expansion coefficient:
Tapering value depends on the pattern of strain and stress state. Radial stress σρ increases in the direction away from the edge and being a compressive stress it reduces tapering. Tangential stress is a tensile stress and thus it increases tapering. Radial stress, under the small expanding coefficients, can cause loss of stability with formation of cross circular waves in the non-deformed part of the work stock. Tangential stress, under same conditions, causes tears and formation of cracks in a longitudinal direction. So this is crucial to select correctly not only the transition expanding coefficients, but the punch taper angle shall be set within the optimal zone a = 15° - 25°.
Expanding force is calculated using the formula:
where kр is a coefficient depending on the expanding coefficient.
Forging process operations includes a number of simple and complex operations: work stock heating, molding, finishing, heat treatment.
Basic forging operations are upsetting, fullering and mold punching.
Upsetting is one of the most common forging operations. Upsetting has the following types: upsetting with annular plates for heavy gauge work stocks; heading consisting of stock length upsetting and rolling by diameter used to remove barrel distortion after upsetting.
Fullering with flat die can vary depending on tool shape and the forging purpose. There are following fullering types: fullering with rolling-impression die; roll forging, when inner and outer work stock diameters are increased by means of work stock wall thickness reduction; rod drawing for heavy-wall tube elongation.
Upset operation is aimed at the workpiece cross-section increase though its height compression. Upsetting is used as a basic (molding) operation to produce forgings of set shapes and sizes; used as an additional operation to increase overall reduction at breakdown of cast structure and anisotropy of properties, also used to ensure proper disposition of crystallites in the finished part; used as an auxiliary operation to reveal metal and alloys rheological characteristics.
Fullering and its types
Fullering is a forging operation resulting in elongation of a work stock or its part by cross-section reduction. Fullering is used as a molding operation to produce forgings of set shapes and sizes and as an auxiliary operation to remove blowing spaces and improve metal mechanical properties by breakdown of cast structure.
Punching is a forging operation to produce dead-end or thorough hollows in work stocks. Metal molding operations vary significantly depending on different punching types.
Upon becoming the official distributer of forging presses, our company ‘Intech GmbH’ LLC (ООО «Интех ГмбХ»), carries out the following: finds the buyers of your products on the market, conducts technical and commercial negotiations with the customers regarding the supplies of your equipment, concludes contracts. Should a bidding take place, we will collect and prepare all the documents required for the participation, conclude all the necessary contracts for the supply of your equipment, as well as register the goods (forging presses) and conduct customs clearance procedures. We will also register a certificate of transaction (Passport of Deal) required for all foreign trade contracts in the foreign currency control department of the authorized Russian bank so that currency transaction could be effected. If required, our company will implement an equipment spacing project in order to integrate your equipment into the existing or newly built production plant.
We are convinced that our company ‘Intech GmbH’ LLC (ООО «Интех ГмбХ»), will become your reliable, qualified and efficient partner & distributor in Russia.
We are always open for cooperation, so let’s move forward together!