We are interested in cooperation with the manufacturers of drawing stands, wire drawing process equipment, who are looking for an official and reliable distributor to supply their equipment to the industrial plants in Russia.
The company’s top management and sales team are well acquainted with the Russian market, its mentality and laws; they also understand industrial specifics of the financial and economic activities of the Russian customers. All our sales managers have a large customer database, extensive experience of successful sales and well-established connections with the potential buyers of your drawing stands,. This allows our managers to promptly set out the most promising directions for promotion and to ensure a rapid entry of the products into the promising Russian market. Our employees, who are fluent in English and German, are focused on working at the international market with the supplies of foreign equipment.
Our team of experienced engineers, who can handle the most serious technical problems, constantly keeps in touch with the Russian customers, holds meetings and delivers presentations regarding the latest achievements of our manufacturing partners. They point out the engineering challenges and actively communicate with all the departments at Russian plants. That is why the specifics of doing a business in the Russian Federation are well-known to us, and we also know the equipment of the local industrial plants and their up-to-date modernization needs.
Once we become your authorized representative in Russia, our marketing staff will carry out a market research in order to check the demand for drawing stands, wire drawing process equipment, will submit a market overview for drawing stands that you offer and evaluate the needs for this type of equipment at local plants. Our specialists will also estimate the potential and capacity of this market at local industrial plants. Our IT-team will start developing a website for your products in Russian. Our experts will assess the conformity between your drawing stands, wire drawing process equipment and customer needs as well as analyze the common reaction to the new goods in general. We will look into the categories of potential customers, and pick out the largest and the most promising plants.
Upon becoming your authorized agent on the territory of Russia, ‘Intech GmbH’ LLC (ООО «Интех ГмбХ»), will obtain certificates, if required, for a batch of the goods, for various types of drawing stands, wire drawing process equipment in compliance with Russian standards. We can also arrange the inspection in order to obtain TR TS 010 and TR TS 012 Certificates. These certificates provides permission to operate your equipment at all industrial plants of the EAEU countries (Russia, Kazakhstan, Belarus, Armenia, Kyrgyzstan), including the hazardous industrial facilities. Our company is eager to assist in issuing Technical Passports for drawing stands as per Russian and other EAEU countries’ requirements.
Our engineering company ‘Intech GmbH’ LLC (ООО «Интех ГмбХ»), collaborates with several Russian design institutes in various industrial segments, which allows us to conduct preliminary design as well as subsequent design works according to the standards, construction rules and regulations that are applicable in Russia and other CIS countries. It also enables us to include your drawing stands, wire drawing process equipment into the future projects.
The Company has its own logistics department that can provide packing service, handling as well as the most efficient and cost effective mode of transportation of the goods (incl. over dimensional and overweight goods). The goods can be delivered on DAP or DDP-customer’s warehouse basis in full compliance with all the relevant regulations and requirements that are applicable on the Russian market.
Our company has its own certified specialists who will carry out installation supervision and commissioning of the delivered equipment, as well as further guarantee and post-guarantee maintenance of drawing stands. They will also provide necessary training and guidance for the customer’s personnel.
Special drawing stands are used to process metals by drawing. This equipment is used to process metal work stock which seem to be drawn through die holes. The dimensions of holes are much smaller than work stock dimensions, i.e. their section. The work stocks are drafted to change their shape and section, thus leading to their length extension. See fig. 1.
Metal processing with this method for production of round and profiled parts has a number of advantages such as:
For cold drawing the following additional advantages can be specified:
Drawn products are widely used in many industrial fields and national economy.
Drawing is used for:
Modern mills designed to process metal parts by drawing are quite advanced. Today they:
High quality control and measuring equipment ensures precise performance of drawing operations that have already been extensively automated.
Application of high resistance dies provide higher speeds and drawing of extra fine wire. There are very strict requirements to wire diameter accuracy.
Units of various designs are used to process work stocks using drawing. There are two types of drawing mills.
The functional device of the pulling mechanism determines the purpose of drawing mills. There are mills that draw the material in a straight line, namely, they are:
There are mills equipped with a capstan for coiling of the processed metal.
The mills that process the material in a straight line are intended to:
The mills that bundle the material up are intended to:
They are characterized by a number of bull blocks and their operational principle. They are divided as follows:
Single-pass drawing mills are named by their function, i.e., they perform drawing in a single pass. Multi-die drawing mills perform drawing in multiple passes.
Modern units for steel wire drawing constitute complex lines. These lines include equipment that performs operations to produce wire of various materials such as low carbon, high carbon or high alloy steels. The material to be drawn shall undergo a certain number of process preparations or heat treatment. It depends on a purpose of finished wire.
The wire should be properly prepared for drawing. It should be pickled, it may have protective coating, and it may undergo hot and cold flushing and drying.
After the above mentioned drawing preparations, the wire is transferred to the drawing section. Depending on the application purpose, the wire after drawing is heat- or oil-treated, then bundled up or packed. If the production enterprise intends to partially consume the produced wire, the wire is transferred to the corresponding workshops or divisions. It is transferred on big reels or spools.
Each unit is equipped with basic and auxiliary equipment. The basic equipment performs drawing operations.
One of the drawing mill types we mentioned above is equipped with a capstan for material coiling. The number of passes required to perform drawing and the type of a mill do not influence the basic configuration of the drawing mill equipment. The basic equipment comprises a capstan, a speed reducer, and an electric motor.
The equipment for steel wire drawing differs from that for non-ferrous metal wire. But nowadays these differences slowly disappear. It is the process technology that determines the specificity of requirements to the design of drawing equipment and its basic characteristics.
Drawing equipment can be both general-purpose and standardized. As a rule, the specialized equipment is used in production departments with high capacities and narrow product mix while it is reasonable to use general-purpose equipment when producing broad product mix.
Non-ferrous metals (copper, aluminum) have lower strength than steel. This is the critical characteristic when choosing main parameters of a drawing mill and its design.
Slip-type drawing mills are used to draw soft material wire, for example, of non-ferrous metals. This is due to the fact that when soft material wire slides, the friction losses are less than those of steel material. Increased plasticity and decreased strength of non-ferrous metals, in any case, make it easier to insert material into the mill. Slip-type drawing mills are rarely used for steel wire production. Mainly they are used to produce thin wire with minimum diameter and special-purpose wire.
Single-pass drawing mills are used to produce heavy-gauge wire of various profile and round section with diameter of 25-40 mm, pipes of ferrous and, mainly, non-ferrous metals. Capstans with large diameters are used to draw pipes of big diameters. The more the pipe diameter is, the more the diameter of a capstan is chosen.
Work stocks are wound onto the capstan in one layer only, thus reducing the bundle weight. The die moves along the block, the material is coiled with no turns moving on the capstan. Therefore, the surface and profile of turns are protected from damages.
Single-pass drawing mills are designed for force of 0.05-200 kN. This is determined by characteristics of drawn material: section, profile, quality. Drawing speed can be up to 5 m/s.
Single-pass mills performance is enhanced by increasing of the bundle weight. It is applied both to side of starting material decoiling and to the side of finished wire coiling. The bigger the diameter of the drawn wire is, the more the bundle weight that can be increased by welding.
Two-pass drawing mills perform drawing in two passes, in other words, when two drawing operations are sufficient. It is necessary to ensure the set size of the wire or when the production output is small. The material is drafted four times in two passes.
The simplest design of such a mill includes a two-stage block. At first stage, the capstan has a smaller diameter, as wire slip is provided at this stage. Different roll wear makes it possible to set drawing by 1-2% higher than the drawing conditioned by stage diameter difference.
Slip is provided at the lower stage, otherwise wire break can occur. It is not possible to apply high drafting forces at this stage.
Differential two-pass drawing mills operate at both stages with no slip, but allow applying not only low, but high drafting forces. Differential mill operating by the two-pass drawing principle has two drawing capstans located in line.
Multi-die drawing mills are designed to draw a work stock through several dies simultaneously in order to increase drawing of the processed material. Dies are located one by one, consequently.
Dimensions of the processed material, namely, its section, required dimensions of the finished product and its mechanical properties have a significant influence on determination of drawing ratio. Usually ratio is set within range 2-25, but it can be higher.
The ber the material is, the harder it is to be pulled through. There is no sufficient pull after the last die to draw the material through all dies of the multi-die line. Therefore, a separate pulling capstan is mounted after each die. The capstan rotates, the pulled material is piled up onto the block and coils after going through the die and transfers to following die.
There is a ratio (proportion) for all the dies of multi-die drawing mill.
It is a prerequisite of successful operation of the unit.
F1v1 = F2v2 = ... = Fnvn,
where F1, F2, ..., Fn are a cross-sectional area of the wire exiting a die; v1,v2, ..., vn are values of velocity of wire coiling onto the capstans as the wire exiting a die.
The volumetric rate of the material flow during a certain period of time should be uniform for all mill dies, otherwise the wire starts to break, fly off the turns and tangle.
Multi-die mills are used for fine wire production (with diameter less than 0.5-0.1 mm). Design of such mills comprises maximum four drawing spindles and maximum 25 die blocks. Die dimensions and capstan diameters should be selected depending on the stages. Wire drawing speed for modern multi-die drawing mills are given in the table below:
|Heavy and medium gauge||5-18||2.5-10|
|Fine and finest||30-80||5-25|
This type of mills is similar to multi-die slip-type drawing mills. The dies and pulling capstans are located consequently in the non-slip drawing mill too. However here an accumulative function is provided, namely, a function to collect the wire between two dies located one by another. There is no need to synchronize speeds of both capstans and wire exiting the die. The loop is accumulated the same way as in the accumulator of a wire rolling mill.
There are various types and designs of multi-die non-slip drawing mills with various drawing ratio.
Each capstan, except for a capstan for the finished wire, is equipped with guiding rings and guiding devices. Guiding rings execute breaking thus preventing the wire from occasional decoiling caused by centrifugal forces.
In this design, wire decoiling from the capstan is separated from wire winding up. Capstans can accumulate several wire turns but wire decoiling speed will not depend on wire coiling speed.
New conceptions were developed and implemented for multi-die drawing mills where the accumulated wire can twist. These developments are related to the method of wire coiling on capstans and transfer of the wire to the following die.
Back–pull provides a decrease of dies wear and an increase of wire thickness uniformity. This way high-speed drawing can be performed.
Back-pull is caused by adjustment of capstan rotation speed, excluding wire slip on the capstan. These mills are equipped similar to other multi-die drawing mills, namely several capstans arranged one by one, die blocks installed between capstans.
Only several wire turns (from 6 to 10 wire turns for each capstan) are wound up on capstans in this mill. This turns number is enough to provide needed friction force between a capstan and wire. The strip is pulled through dies without slip. The wire is transported without any rollers thus preventing the strip twisting during transit.
Electric motors create back–pull in loopless mills. This enables to use higher back tension and adjust it in a wider range. There are not much various rollers on these mills therefore it is easier to insert a work block when drawing heavy-gauge wire of high strength materials. Not all wire types allow high reduction. Back-pull is significant and efficient to use at production of such wire type. Profiled wire is produced with low reduction. Therefore die wear is decreased.
Mills of this type have the following advantages:
Multi-die drawing mills are known to be transfer lines. It means that the process is performed on the line continuously, starting from work stock feed and ending with finished wire products, non-stop. On these mills, the wire is processed with maximum deformation, pulled through in between heat treatment operations or reduced to set dimensions directly.
Several single-pass mills can be combined in one line by this technique. One can save time for operations and work stock transportation combining in one place units which were previously located in various workshop sections.
Transfer lines are assembled from equipment with similar capacity properties; otherwise the total performance of a newly combined and equipped transfer line can decrease.
Combination of mechanical descaling and drawing operations
There are plenty of combined lines nowadays. Product mechanical descaling units and pickling lines are used in combination already and in the same way (mechanical) descaling devices and (single-pass/multi-die) drawing mills are combined nowadays.
There are following advantages in combination of these two units:
It is hard to combine the pickling line with the drawing mill as the pickling line occupies big areas in workshops.
But the new mechanical equipment for descaling by its performance is as good as the modern drawing mill. It is possible to combine these two units with this new equipment.
Combination of these units has the following advantages:
Combination of drawing and annealing operations
Combined process operations were developed in production process of aluminum wire: a continuous aluminum casting process with continuous rolling and drawing.
As for ferrous metal wire, here one can see only an initial stage involving implementation of combination of drawing and annealing processes. Works on implementation of such a unit are performed at the Magnitogorsk Metalware-Metallurgical plant.
There is a number of combined lines that comprise various units, for example, for drawing, annealing, tin-plating and isolation coating of the wire. All these processes are performed continuously and at a high speed. Therefore decoilers and coilers are installed at the line entry and exit to ensure continuous feed of work stocks and unload of the finished wire without line stopping.
These combined lines have the following advantages:
Multiwire drawing is applied when drawing especially fine non-ferrous metal wires. Multiwire drawing mills operate continuously. There is no need to stop the unit to feed a bundle or to unload the finished wire. These units combine wire drawing with annealing and product coating. Speed of the slower process treatment is in priority for the combinations of such type. There are 18-wire drawing mills where treatment speed does not exceed 5 m/s. The speed reaches 90 m/s in total.
Low speed at the similar mill has the following advantages:
If these operations are not combined, mills are equipped with the systems for two- and ten-wire drawing ensuring processing with the speed of 10-15 m/s.
The more wires are processed at the mill, the lower operation speed is and therefore it has lower performance. But it is reasoned by the fact that recovery of the consequences of wire breaking on the multiwire mill takes huge amount of time comparing to single-wire mill. In order to enhance the performance of the multiwire mill, one should carefully consider preparation of the material for the process (drawing), choose a process lubricant and cooling means for the wire.
In drawing mills wire is coiled on reel blocks at heat treating lines and wire covering lines. Reel blocks can be in various units vertical or horizontal.
Only finishing blocks (for finished wire) are used for wire bundle accumulation in drawing mills. There are reel blocks designed with dowels and special grooves to lower down the bundle stripper. This block design facilitates precise centering of the wire bundle on the drum dowels, thus decreasing dynamic loads on shaft and reel bearings.
In other reel block designs the bundle stripper is located before the place where the bundle is formed. In this design lesser height of the crane lifter for servicing of the mill is needed as the reel block has no dowels. However, the wire bundle is centered on the stripper arms not so good in comparison with dowels. Bearings tend to fail more often.
If fine wire produced by drawing or pulling is to be used on this very plant for production of cables, slings or nails, mills are equipped with spool coilers. Spools have more capacity than finishing blocks that is why mills can operate with higher performance with no need to lose the time to remove the wire from the reel. The wire on spools is decoiled easily in further processes with no tangling.
Relatively continuous tension is maintained during coiling. Slip couplings are not used to maintain tension when processing heavy-gauge wire due to high wear.
Wire coiling speed can be adjusted based on the wire speed at the exit. Gearboxes, friction components, various frequency regulated electric motors and hydrodynamic couplings are used for that.
Coilers can be set in motion (rotation) with electric drivers. Consider profitability of operation when choosing a drive.
Variable transformers which are used for motor supply are applied if asynchronous electric motors are used to maintain coiler tension.
One should consider profitability of operation when choosing a drive. Variable transformer, which are used for motor supply, are applied if asynchronous electric motors are used to maintain coiler tension.
A DC motor can be used for small coilers. All electric drives have simple design and low cost. They can be used for any purpose, but they have the following disadvantages:
That is why the main drive accelerates slowly. Also, tension is loosen while accelerating. These electric drives are successfully used when the bundle diameter and coiling speed adjustment range is small.
Some spare wire turns should be formed when coiling it up on the capstan. The amount of spare wire depends on the coiling speed. The higher the speed, the more spare wire should be accumulated as a loop. The material will break if there is no loop, loopless operation is possible only with heavy-gauge material.
Tension should be low when the wire is coiled up. High tension may cause destruction of the coiling spool, on the one hand, and sticking of aluminum wire turns, on the other hand.
With drawing speed increase the speed of wire coiling on a capstan decreases and the time needed to unload the bundle keeps unchanged regardless of the drawing speed. The more heavy-gauge drawn wire is, the faster the capstan is wound up. However, the spool should be used only for wire to be used on the same plant. If the wire is to be supplied to customer in bundles with weight max. 80 kg according to GOST, the coilers of the mill should be of the fixed type.
The wire wound up on the finishing block is supplied to the fixed reel coiler in the same volume. As it is coiled up on the fixed reel, the wire is cut when the bundle reaches the needed weight and then the bundle is unloaded. There is no need to stop the unit for that. The bundle weight for the fixed reel is not limited.
Container coilers, where the wire doesn’t twist while coiling up, are used to process high-strength wire grades and non-round section wire.
The coiler consists of a drive pulling block and unit for container rotation. The container rotates with medium speed equal to the wire feed speed.
The wire can be coiled up in completely correct concentric rows through adjusting container rotation speed smoothly.
In some designs, the pulling block is located near the container, and the wire is supplied from the block to the container by the tube guide. In other designs, the pulling block is located above the container, and wire coils fall in the rotating container directly from the block.
A table for wire binding is a rack for bundles after a reel. Bundles are bound manually on the rack. Some racks are fixed and others are rotating. After a bundle was bound in one place, the cross table is rotated by the axis under the angle equal to the binding pitch.
After the bundle is fully tied up, the table is tilted angularly, and the bundle falls on the floor.
When drawing mills operate under high speed and line capacity increases, personnel fails to weld bundles before the mill and to bind finished bundles. Manual binding requires a lot of efforts and time. A bundle binding machine ties up bundles in three points at the same time.
Finished wire in bundles is unloaded from the reel using special units called strippers. They are inserted in the grooves of the finishing block. When the finishing block is fully loaded up, the stripper with wire is lifted up above the block by the lifter and then placed on the table where the bundle is to be tied up. The block design allows installing the stripper on the reel at the beginning of wire coiling or at the end of wire coiling.
Strippers are installed on the finishing block before wire coiling in old design mills. Here, the stripper is some kind of an extension of the block. When the reel rotates with the stripper and the wire, due to unbalanced of the bundle, centrifugal forces occur on the reel. Due to its own instability the stripper used to beat on the reel. Loud noises occurred as a result of rotation and centrifugal forces caused by bundle instability contribute to wear and destruction of bearings on the reel shaft.
In modern mills, strippers are installed on the reel after the end of coiling, i.e. when the bundle is unloaded from the reel.
Decoilers of various design are installed before all wire decoiling units.
Rotating swifts are used to decoil the wire with diameter 10-20 mm.
All decoiling devices, both swifts and decoilers, where the bundle is rotated while being decoiled, have an advantage of not twisting the fed wire after each turn. But line performance is decreased, because the mill has to be stopped when the next wire bundle is welded to the bundle loaded on the decoiler.
Wire end can be welded when another decoiler type is chosen as the bundles are not rotated while being decoiled. But the wire is twisted and such decoiler needs more space for installation. The wire is unloaded from such decoiler in wire turns and a big distance from the decoiler to the mill is needed to straighten them.
When the wire is fed into the mill, the head wire end diameter shall be reduced to ensure easy entry of the wire into the die. The wire end should protrude from the die strictly as much as it is needed to ensure its grip with tongs.
There are special devices to point the wire, bar or another work block: roll pointing machines, rotational and forging machines, hydraulic presses, electrical pneumatic forging hammers and cutting heads. Also there are push pointers.
All modern pointing machines are driven and equipped with a separate drive.
All listed devices for bar end pointing have one big disadvantage, namely, a need to remove grips after end of drawing process. Grips have smaller size than the diameter of the finished bar in order to ensure its pushing into the die. It causes metal losses in the amount of 3-4%. The shorter the drawn bars are, the higher the losses are. Especially big losses occur at drawing of expensive high alloy metals and alloys.
It is possible to prevent losses due to a new invention, a device for pushing the bar into the die; it can be both mechanical and hydraulic. The most common are hydraulic push pointers. These units are installed on the common frame with the die. Basic pushing cylinders are located on the sides of the frame. The mill is designed to process one, two or three bars, so the hydraulic pusher is designed for the same operation. Based on the experience, the pushing force is 1.2-2 times of the drawing force.
Pull pointers are used in slip-type drawing mills equipped with stage capstans. Stages on pulling blocks have small dimensions and die holders are installed space-saving, so it is complicated to feed in the mill. The wire is pulled through the die outside of the mill using pull pointers.
Pull pointers often are combined with push pointers.
Pointed wire end is inserted in the die then gripped with the tongs installed on the reel and slowly pulled into the die using the rotating reel. When the wire of sufficient length is on the reel, it is stopped and the wire is fed into the next die.
Pull pointers are not needed if reels are equipped with DC drives, and the existing unit allows feeding of the wire into the die at slow speeds and gradual mill start.
Upon becoming the official distributer of broaching machines, our company ‘Intech GmbH’ LLC (ООО «Интех ГмбХ»), carries out the following: finds the buyers of your products on the market, conducts technical and commercial negotiations with the customers regarding the supplies of your equipment, concludes contracts. Should a bidding take place, we will collect and prepare all the documents required for the participation, conclude all the necessary contracts for the supply of your equipment, as well as register the goods (broaching machines) and conduct customs clearance procedures. We will also register a certificate of transaction (Passport of Deal) required for all foreign trade contracts in the foreign currency control department of the authorized Russian bank so that currency transaction could be effected. If required, our company will implement an equipment spacing project in order to integrate your equipment into the existing or newly built production plant.
We are convinced that our company ‘Intech GmbH’ LLC (ООО «Интех ГмбХ»), will become your reliable, qualified and efficient partner & distributor in Russia.
We are always open for cooperation, so let’s move forward together!